“Recent studies report that Y-chromosomal Adam lived as early as around 142,000 years ago.“
We’re all related to this guy, every single person on earth, including this guy:
“The Maya never said anything about the end of the world or anything about a great change in the universe on that date,” David Stuart, a professor of Mesoamerican art and writing at the University of Texas at Austin, told The Huffington Post in December 2011. “The calendar not only continues after that date,” he said. “It goes 70 octillion years into the future.”
So, that’s when mankind will exist no longer. No doubt, we will have taken many different shapes during such a long time and will not be called or even be “mankind” anymore and certainly will not be using English. Though, it will always have originated from here and now and before.
The M214 mutation that defines Haplogroup NO occurred in a gamete of a man who belonged to Haplogroup K(xLT) and who probably lived somewhere in Asia east of the Aral Sea about 30,000 to 40,000 years ago. This man has become the direct patrilineal ancestor of a very large percentage of present-day humans, as he is the forefather of both Haplogroup N and Haplogroup O, which together are overwhelmingly dominant in most populations of North and East Eurasia.
No confirmed case of Haplogroup NO* has been found. However, NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175), which potentially may belong either to Haplogroup NO* or to Haplogroup N*-M231(xN1-LLY22g), has been found in 5.7% (2/35) of a sample of Buyi and in 2.9% (6/210) of a pool of four samples of Japanese, particularly in Tokushima (4/70 = 5.7%). Haplogroup NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175) Y-DNA also has been found sporadically in samples of Han Chinese, Yizu, Malays, Mongolians, Daurs, Manchurian Evenks, Hezhes, Huis, Yaos, and South Koreans; however, the two published Han Chinese cases of NO-M214(xN1-LLY22g, O-M175) subsequently have been found to belong to N*-M231(xN1-LLY22g).“
All humans outside Africa are decendants of a neanderthal, a common ancestor, reputably of slow wits.
“The Haplogroup D-M174 Y-chromosomes that are found among populations of the Japanese Archipelago are particularly distinctive, bearing a complex of at least five individual mutations along an internal branch of the Haplogroup D-M174 phylogeny, thus distinguishing them clearly from the Haplogroup D-M174 chromosomes that are found among the Tibetans and Andaman Islanders and providing evidence that Y-chromosome Haplogroup D-M5 was the modal haplogroup in the ancestral population that developed the prehistoric Jōmon culture in the Japanese islands.”
The Jomon culture lasted from 14000 BCE to 300 BCE and never used metal. Meanwhile in Southern Africa:
“Border Cave has a remarkably continuous stratigraphic record of occupation spanning about 200 ka. Anatomically modern Homo sapiens skeletons together with stone tools and chipping debris were recovered… The site produced not only the complete skeleton of an infant, but also the remains of at least five adult hominins. Also recovered were more than 69,000 artifacts, and the remains of more than 43 mammal species, three of which are now extinct.
Also recovered from the cave was the “Lebombo Bone“, the oldest known artefact showing a counting tally. Dated to 35,000 years, it is a small piece of baboon fibula incised with 29 notches, similar to the calendar sticks used by the San of Namibia. Animal remains from the cave show that its early inhabitants had a diet of bushpig, warthog, zebra and buffalo. Raw materials used in the making of artifacts include chert, rhyolite, quartz, and chalcedony, as well as bone, wood and ostrich egg shells.”
“Recent African Origin theory suggests that H. sapiens sapiens evolved alongside other hominids for a considerable period of time before the other hominids became extinct…
Denisova hominins are Paleolithic-era members of the genus Homo that may belong to a previously unknown species of human. In March 2010, scientists announced the discovery of a finger bone fragment of a juvenile female who lived about 41,000 years ago, found in the remote Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, a cave which has also been inhabited by Neanderthals and modern humans. A tooth and toe bone belonging to different members of the same population have since been found.
Analysis of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of the finger bone showed it to be genetically distinct from the mtDNAs of Neanderthals and modern humans. Subsequent study of the nuclear genome from this specimen suggests this group shares a common origin with Neanderthals, they ranged from Siberia to Southeast Asia, and they lived among and interbred with the ancestors of some present-day modern humans, with up to 6% of the DNA of Melanesians and Australian Aborigines deriving from Denisovans. Similar analysis of a toe bone discovered in 2011 is underway.“
195,000 years ago modern humans arrived.
“About 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. For the first time in Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also noted, from artifacts in places such as Blombos cave in South Africa. Firstly among the artifacts of Africa, archeologists found they could differentiate and classify those of less than 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, and drilling and piercing tools. These new stone-tool types have been described as being distinctly differentiated from each other, as if each tool had a specific purpose. Three thousand to 4,000 years later, this tool technology spread with people migrating to Europe. The new technology generated a population explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of the Neanderthals.”