The grave accent, although not standardly applied to any English words, is sometimes used in poetry and song lyrics to indicate that a vowel usually silent is to be pronounced, in order to fit the rhythm or meter. Most often, it is applied to a word ending with -ed. For instance, the word looked is usually pronounced /ˈlʊkt/ as a single syllable, with the e silent; when written as lookèd, the e is pronounced: /ˈlʊk.ɨd/ look-ed). It can also be used in this capacity to distinguish certain pairs of identically spelled words like the past tense of learn, learned /ˈlɜrnd/, from the adjective learnèd /ˈlɜrn.ɨd/ (for example, “a very learnèd man”).
Hen. Created as an alternative to hon (“she”) and han (“he”). The coining of the word has probably been influenced by the Finnish hän, a personal pronoun used about human beings and which does not specify gender (Finnish lacks grammatical gender entirely). Hen was suggested as early as the 1966 in Swedish regional newspaper Upsala Nya Tidning and was proposed again in a 1994 article by linguist Hans Karlgren, but did not receive widespread attention until around 2010.
In Swedish hen is the gender-neutral pronoun replacing the words han (he), hon (she) and den/det (it). There is also en (one) instead of man (man/the common man/all humans), as in the sentence one has his/her moments, literally en har sina stunder, where the possessive pronoun sina is gender-neutral.
From Middle English one, oon, on, oan, an, from Old English ān (“one”; same word as an), from Proto-Germanic *ainaz (“one”), from Proto-Indo-European *óynos (“single, one”). Cognate with Scots ae, ane, wan, yin (“one”); North Frisian ån (“one”); Saterland Frisian aan (“one”); West Frisian ien (“one”); Dutch een, één (“one”); Low German en, een, ein (“one”); German ein, eins (“one”); Swedish en (“one”); Icelandic einn (“one”); Latin unus (“one”) (Old Latin oinos); Russian один (odin).
- (cardinal) A numerical value equal to 1; the first number in the set of natural numbers (especially in number theory); the cardinality of the smallest nonempty set. Ordinal: first.
- There is only one Earth.
- In many cultures, a baby turns one year old a year after its birth.
We’re all 9 months older than our age.
For early Christians, Sunday, as well as being the first day of the week, was also the spiritual eighth day, as it symbolised the new world created after Christ’s resurrection. The concept of the eighth day was symbolic only and had no effect on the use of the seven-day week for calendar purposes. Justin Martyr wrote: “the first day after the Sabbath, remaining the first of all the days, is called, however, the eighth, according to the number of all the days of the cycle, and [yet] remains the first”. This does not set up an eight-day week, since the eighth day is also considered to be the first day of the next cycle (i.e., not the following day).
So, it’s the 1st and 8th at the same time.
The Lithuanian calendar is unusual among Western countries in that neither the names of the months nor the names of the weekdays are derived from Greek or Norse mythology. They were formalized after Lithuania regained independence in 1918, based on historic names, and celebrate natural phenomena; three months are named for birds, two for trees, and the remainder for seasonal activities and features. The days of the week are simply ordinal numbers.
Ancient Baltic cosmological schemes have been found on burial urns dated from 600-200 BC. As with other Bronze Age cultures, there were megaliths associated with the summer and winter solstices; hill enclaves with solar calendars have been discovered at Birutė Mountain near Palanga, and at the Purmaliai mound near Klaipėda.
Sausis (January) derives from the adjective sausas, “dry”.
Vasaris (February) derives from the noun vasara, “summer”.
Kovas (March) may derive from either the noun kovas, the rook, or the noun kova, meaning struggle.
Balandis (April) is derived from balandis, the dove, which at this point has begun to coo, nest and mate.
Gegužė (May) is derived from gegužė, the cuckoo. Its call is felt to herald the final arrival of spring.
Birželis (June) is derived from beržas, the birch.
Liepa (July) is derived from liepa, the linden tree.
Rugpjūtis (August) is derived from rugiai, rye.
Rugsėjis (September) is also derived from rugiai, with the suffix sėti, to sow.
Spalis (October) is derived from spaliai, flax hards.
Lapkritis (November) is derived from lapas, leaf, and kristi, to fall.
Gruodis (December) is derived from the noun gruodas, which has no direct English equivalent; it may be described as “a frozen clod” (clump of soil).
Soil is a natural body consisting of layers (soil horizons) that are primarily composed of minerals which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other characteristics. It is the unconsolidated or loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth. Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate (temperature, precipitation), relief (slope), organisms (flora and fauna), parent materials (original minerals), and time. In engineering terms, soil is referred to as regolith, or loose rock material that lies above the ‘solid geology’. In horticulture, the terms ‘soil’ is defined as the layer that contains organic material that influences and has been influenced by plant roots and may range in depth from centimetres to many metres.
The crust occupies less than 1% of Earth’s volume.
The oceanic crust of the sheet is different from its continental crust. The oceanic crust is 5 km (3 mi) to 10 km (6 mi) thick and is composed primarily of basalt, diabase, and gabbro. The continental crust is typically from 30 km (20 mi) to 50 km (30 mi) thick and is mostly composed of slightly less dense rocks than those of the oceanic crust. Some of these less dense rocks, such as granite, are common in the continental crust but rare to absent in the oceanic crust. Both the continental and oceanic crust “float” on the mantle. Because the top of the continental crust is above that of the oceanic, water runs off the continents and collects above the oceanic crust.
The temperature of the crust increases with depth, reaching values typically in the range from about 200 °C (392 °F) to 400 °C (752 °F) at the boundary with the underlying mantle. The crust and underlying relatively rigid uppermost mantle make up the lithosphere. Because of convection in the underlying plastic (although non-molten) upper mantle and asthenosphere, the lithosphere is broken into tectonic plates that move.
Earth’s mantle is a rocky shell about 2,900 km (1,800 mi) thick that constitutes about 84% of Earth’s volume. It is predominantly solid and encloses the iron-rich hot core, which occupies about 15% of Earth’s volume. Past episodes of melting and volcanism at the shallower levels of the mantle have produced a thin crust of crystallized melt products near the surface, upon which we live.
Two main zones are distinguished in the upper mantle: the inner asthenosphere composed of plastic flowing rock about 200 km thick, and the lowermost part of the lithosphere composed of rigid rock about 50 to 120 km thick. A thin crust, the upper part of the lithosphere, surrounds the mantle and is about 5 to 75 km thick.
Partly by analogy to what is known about our Moon, Earth is considered to have differentiated from an aggregate of planetesimals into its core, mantle and crust within about 100 million years of the formation of the planet, 4.6 billion years ago. The primordial crust was very thin and was probably recycled by much more vigorous plate tectonics and destroyed by significant asteroid impacts, which were much more common in the early stages of the solar system.
The Earth has probably always had some form of basaltic crust, but the age of the oldest oceanic crust today is only about 200 million years. In contrast, the bulk of the continental crust is much older. The oldest continental crustal rocks on Earth have ages in the range from about 3.7 to 4.28 billion years . Some zircon with age as great as 4.3 billion years has been found in the Narryer Gneiss Terrane. The average age of the current Earth’s continental crust has been estimated to be about 2.0 billion years. Formation of new continental crust is linked to periods of intense orogeny; these periods coincide with the formation of the supercontinents such as Rodinia, Pangaea and Gondwana.
Orogeny refers to forces and events leading to a large structural deformation of the Earth’s lithosphere (crust and uppermost mantle) due to the engagement of tectonic plates. Response to such engagement results in the formation of long tracts of highly deformed rock called orogens or orogenic belts. The word “orogeny” comes from the Greek (oros for “mountain” plus genesis for “creation” or “origin”), and it is the primary mechanism by which mountains are built on continents. Orogens develop while a continental plate is crumpled and is pushed upwards to form mountain ranges, and involve a great range of geological processes collectively called orogenesis.
Post-glacial rebound (sometimes called continental rebound, glacial isostasy, glacial isostatic adjustment) is the rise of land masses that were depressed by the huge weight of ice sheets during the last glacial period, through a process known as isostasy. It affects northern Europe (especially Scotland, Estonia, Fennoscandia, and northern Denmark), Siberia, Canada, the Great Lakes of Canada and the United States, the coastal region of the US state of Maine, parts of Patagonia, and Antarctica.
|The mantle is made of much denser, thicker material, because of this the plates “float” on it like oil floats on water.
Many geologists believe that the mantle “flows” because of convection currents. Convection currents are caused by the very hot material at the deepest part of the mantle rising, then cooling, sinking again and then heating, rising and repeating the cycle over and over. When the convection currents flow in the mantle they also move the crust. A conveyor belt in a factory moves boxess like the convection currents in the mantle moves the plates of the Earth.
Atmospheric circulation is the large-scale movement of air, and the means by which thermal energy is distributed on the surface of the Earth, together with the much slower (lagged) ocean circulation system. The large-scale structure of the atmospheric circulation varies from year to year, but the basic climatological structure remains fairly constant.
Latitudinal circulation is the consequence of the fact that incident solar radiation per unit area is highest at the heat equator, and decreases as the latitude increases, reaching its minimum at the poles. It consists of two primary convection cells, the Hadley cell and the polar vortex, with the Hadley cell experiencing stronger convection as a consequence of the release of latent heat energy due to the condensation of water vapor at higher altitudes during cloud formation.
Longitudinal circulation, on the other hand, comes about because water has a higher specific heat capacity than land and thereby absorbs and releases more heat, but the temperature changes less than land. This effect is noticeable; it is what brings the sea breeze, air cooled by the water, ashore in the day, and carries the land breeze, air cooled by contact with the ground, out to sea during the night. Longitudinal circulation consists of two cells, the Walker circulation and El Niño / Southern Oscillation.